Here is a pure granular elemental sulfur (sulphur), with sulfur reducing bacteria right on it. This product can be used in a number of ways, and accomplishes the same job of nitrate reduction as our NO-NO3®. This product is ideal for dual chamber reactors, using our A.R.M.® in one reactor and placing the L.S.M.® in another. This results in a system that delivers elevated calcium, and reduced nitrates.
LSM™ is intended for use in experimental sulfur based nitrate reduction equipment or systems. Nitrate and pH test kits are required to fine tune any nitrate reducing equipment. Sulfur based nitrate reducing bacteria require an oxygen depleted environment. Be aware that this process may strongly acidify surrounding water. A typical system employs two separate canisters with a means to control water flow rate through the reactor. The first canister contains the LSM™. The second canister is filled with aragonite to neutralize acidified water and supply calcium ions as a by-product of neutralization. LSM™ can be placed in any oxygen restricted environment. As with any experimental project, we do not recommend putting a significant amount of sea life at immediate risk, nor risk the health of well established systems without a thorough testing of the effluent parameters first.
Note: Nitrate reduction with sulfur may produce an odor. Due to the experimental nature of sulfur based de-nitrification, the manufacturer accepts no responsibility for the use of this product.
Guidelines for LSMTM Use in Reactors and Modified Jaubert Systems:
The most common application for LSMTM would, of course, be in reaction chambers. Before going into the details here’s a review of the basic concept of autotrophic sulfur denitrification:
In the reactor, sulfur is a food source for bacteria that also eliminate nitrates by converting them to Nitrogen gas. In time the bacteria break down the elemental sulfur and also create sulphate and hydrogen. Both of these by-products can have a negative impact on pH, by bringing the pH down, so it is important to make sure that the effluent from any sulfur reactor is adjusted back to a pH that is acceptable for a marine system.
The most useful reactor designs have a two chamber design with the first chamber holding the sulfur media and performing the denitrification, while the second chamber is filled with calcium reactor media and adjusts the pH of the effluent back to acceptable levels.
Because autotrophic bacteria will prefer oxygen over nitrate because of this it is important for the flow through the reactor to be slow enough to deplete oxygen so that it is not present for some length of the column. It should also be noted that design is simplified by having a vertical reactor with water added to the bottom so that the sulfur stays in the reactor as it will have a tendency to crumble as it is consumed.
Initial flow rates tend to be in the 1 liter per hour per liter of sulfur in the reactor. Rates may be adjusted up to about 5 liters per hour ultimately but initially should even be below 1 liter.
Because of the slow flow rates, the calcium reactor media may clog as it breaks down too. A coarse grade reactor media will eliminate this possibility. By following these few, loose guidelines a very simple sulfur reactor can be created.
Volume of reactor:
The volume of the Sulfur reactor should be about 1% the volume of the system if the NO3 levels are below 50 mg/l or 2% in systems where the initial concentration is greater than 50 mg/l.
Modified Jaubert sulfur use:
The use of sulfur in a Jaubert or deep sand bed, (DSB), system is even simpler but may not necessarily always be as successful so care should be taken when considering this usage. The product NO NO3TM may be a safer alternative for this type of use as it is tempered a bit by having aragonite mixed with the sulfur beads. In both system types a sulfur media is the bottom substrate, (at the depth of about ½”), either above the plenum or on the tank bottom.
In what type of reactor would I use LSM™?
LSM™ is meant to be used in dual chamber, (or sandwich style single chamber), slow flow, media reactors designed for denitrifying with elemental sulfur. Typically LSM™ is used with ARM™ directly after it to adjust the pH back to sea water parameters. For more information see “Guidelines for the Use of LSM™ in Reactors and Modified Jaubert Systems” in LSM™ Directions.
How does LSM™ work?
LSM™ is a nitrate reducing media for use in low flow sulfur reactors. Bacteria that are on the LSM™ consume elemental sulfur. To do this they need a source of either O2 or NO3. By placing the LSM™ in a slow flow chamber the O2 becomes depleted in the very beginning of the chamber allowing NO3 to be used to complete the digestion of the sulfur in the remainder, (majority), of the chamber. This reduces the NO3 to nitrogen gas and eliminates it from the system.
At CaribSea we take aquariums seriously. Since 1972 we have supplied hundreds of public aquariums, zoos, aquaculture facilities, public and private institutions, and hundreds of thousands of dedicated aquarists with the highest quality marine and freshwater products. CaribSea has been in the forefront of the principle that substrates are a piece of equirment, not just a decorative afterthought. Caribsea substrates are as precisely engineered as any piece of advanced equipment used by today`s hobbyists and professionals. CaribSea products are the chemical support, biological filtration, and biodiversity backbone for many of the most spectacular aquatic displays ever created. We are now celebrating our 35th year in the business, and our product line has continued to grow; making CaribSea your aragonite source and so much more.
Trace & Minor Elements for Rainbow Fishes, Blue-Eyes & other Tropic Fishes of Australia & New Guinea
Unique complex that provides trace and minor elements in ratios found to be beneficial to rainbowfish and other fishes that share the same waters of origin.
Provides minor and trace elements utilized in important neurological and metabolic reactions, and which are incorporated into natural bio-pigments for coloration.
Replaces minor and trace elements used by aquarium inhabitants, and which are lost through chemical filtration (use of filtration media such as resins and activated carbon).
Composed of purified water and ultra-high purity materials.
Does not significantly increase GH or KH.
Formulated utilizing extensive research on the chemistry of the waters naturally-inhabited by rainbowfishes and blue-eyes, as well as their trace and minor element requirements.
The role that trace and minor elements play with rainbowfishes and other fishes is related to neurological and metabolic processes (in which these elements play critical roles), as well as overall coloration (trace and minor elements are often at the core of pigments known to enhance coloration); of these aspects, it is coloration that is often most important to the rainbowfish enthusiast, as few experienced hobbyists will deny that male rainbowfish displaying to a female are some of the most brilliantly-colored fishes maintained in captivity. Dosing a trace and minor supplement with every water change performed is an effective method of delivering these substances for maximum benefit.
Rainbowfishes and their allies, the Blue-eyes, are native to all manner of water bodies throughout New Guinea and parts of Australia. Water chemistry in these systems varies from moderately-acidic to -alkaline, and extremely-soft to -hard; while it is generally unnecessary to maintain water parameters for a given species exactly like those of their native habitat, it’s sensible to approximate these parameters (e.g. moderately-hard water and alkaline pH for species native to habitats featuring these conditions, and vice versa for fishes hailing from soft-water, acidic waters) for long-term health of the fish. That stated, the majority of rainbowfishes (with few exceptions) adapt well to a general hardness of 9 - 12 dGH (150 - 200 ppm) and pH of 6.5 - 7.5, though some may require harder or softer conditions (Blue-eyes inhabit coastal environments and do well in varying degrees of brackish water; for other species’ requirements, consult a reputable text). Maintaining immeasurable ammonia and nitrite, and <20 ppm nitrate, is more important than attaining specific pH and dGH values for long-term health of rainbowfishes.
A number of popular ornamental fish species, such as various gudgeons, gobys, and scats are often found in the same waters in which rainbowfishes and blue-eyes originate; hence, RainboCode may also be used in aquaria housing these fishes with equal success.
Instructions and Guidelines
Shake product well before using.
Community Rainbowfish Aquaria: Add ½ ml (~10 drops) of product per 25 US-gallons of aquarium water every other day. When used in this fashion, 250 ml treats up to 2,500 US-gallons (9,464 L).
Biotope Aquaria: As noted opposite, the water conditions that rainbowfishes and blue-eyes originate from in the wild is wide-ranging. It is therefore sensible to use different dosages of this product for biotope aquaria in which fishes with different requirements are housed. Use the following dosages as a general guideline for each biotope aquarium, and increase or decrease dosage as deemed necessary by the appearance of the inhabitants and overall aquarium.
Rainbowfishes endemic to acidic pH habitats: Add ¼ ml (~5 drops) of product per 25 US-gallons of aquarium water every other day.
Rainbowfishes endemic to alkaline pH habitats: Add ½ ml (~10 drops) of product per 25 US-gallons of aquarium water every other day.
Blue-eyes: Add ¾ ml (~15 drops) of product per 25 US-gallons of aquarium water every other day.
Note that starting out at a dosage of ½ those recommended above and then gradually increasing the dosage over a period of weeks is often a good practice to follow in aquaria that have not received any previous trace and minor element supplementation; doing so will not cause any harm to aquarium inhabitants, and will enable you to notice subtle changes in the appearance of the system that indicate the effectiveness and need for the product. Though trace and minor elements are essential to critical biological processes, their gross overdosing can be harmful to aquarium inhabitants. Minor and trace elements are made unavailable in aquaria largely by adsorption to particulate organic matter (POM); therefore, aquaria with large amounts of latent organic material may require slightly heavier dosing of this product to compensate for that which is bound. Note that activated carbon will remove trace and minor elements both passively and actively.
Zinc (min) 0.015 mg/oz.; Iron (min) 0.0016 mg/oz.; Manganese 0.00086 mg/oz.; (min) Cobalt (min) 0.000086 mg/oz.
Purified water, species specific, appropriate minor and trace minerals
Water Chemistry Adjustment in all East African Cichlid Aquaria
Adjusts the chemistry of purified water to approximate that of Lake Malawi, which is able to accomodate cichlids hailing from all three of the East African Great Lakes (Malawi, Tanganyika, and Victoria). Does not increase alkalinity (carbonate hardness).
Provides the proper ratios of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and sulfate, as dictated by limnological surveys of Lake Malawi.
Formulated by a marine scientist.
Though the water chemistry in Lakes Victoria, Malawi, and Tanganyika is different, Rift Lake Chemie provides a good basis in which cichlids and other fishes endemic to the distinct lakes may be successfully maintained. This is because it is formulated to provide the major elements in ratios derived from extensive water analysis surveys; it is therefore possible to maintain a mixed-cichlid community with water that has been prepared with Rift Lake Chemie. This supplement does not increase alkalinity, nor does it contain minor or trace elements important to long-term health and coloration of cichlids and their allies; used as directed, Brightwell Aquatics Rift Lake dKH and CichlidCode will accomplish these tasks.
Instructions and Guidelines
Do not add this product directly to an aquarium without first diluting in water as directed.
Basic Instructions and Guidelines: Dissolve 2 grams (~½ teaspoon) of product per 20 US-gallons of aquarium water in 8-fl. oz. of fresh water; add this solution to aquarium to establish proper water chemistry and when performing water changes.
Advanced Instructions and Guidelines: Create a stock solution by dissolving 8 grams (~2 teaspoons) of Rift Lake Chemie in 8-fl. oz. of fresh water (preferably purified); each ml of stock sol’n will increase the total dissolved solids (TDS) in 1 US-gallon (3.785 L) of water by ~13.7 ppm or ~0.12 dGH. [Reference: Each g of Rift Lake Chemie will increase the TDS in 1 US-gallon (3.785 L) of water by 428.7 ppm.] If initial TDS in aquarium is below desired level, add stock sol’n at maximum rate of 10 ml per 20 US-gallons daily until desired TDS is attained, then dose as needed and add to purified water when performing water changes. Maintain TDS within a range of +/-20 ppm. A sensible starting point when maintaining specific rift lake biotopes is to use the following TDS guidelines: Lake Victoria: 75 - 125 ppm; Lake Malawi: 150 - 200 ppm; Lake Tanganyika: 425 - 475 ppm.
Balanced monovalent and multivalent cation mixture with appropriate anions and trace minerals to replicate natural rift lake waters.
Natural sand with bacteria which can be used without washing!
Size grain: 1mm or less
|Size of aquarium (water capacity)||Amount of this product|
|Aquarium with fish||Aquatic plants only|
|Small aquarium (up to about 10 L)||1 bag or more||2 bags or more|
|Width 30 cm water tank (about 20 L)||2 bags or more||4 bags or more|
|Width 45 cm water tank (about 35 L)||6 bags or more||12 bags or more|
$2.00Gold Ring Danio (Danio tinwini)