Brightwell Aquatics Lugol’s is an extremely powerful iodine solution. It should only be used by advanced reef aquarists to dose iodine as well as to create a dip for corals and their allies.
The importance of iodine in a reef aquarium cannot be overstated. Presence of iodine is vital to hermatypic invertebrates (i.e., corals, clams, and their allies that harbor zooxanthellae) because it is used to detoxify excess oxygen produced by zooxanthellae. This oxygen irritates sensitive tissue.
Corals and clams that appear to shrivel or close under intense lighting are attempting to shade their zooxanthellae crop to reduce the rate of oxygen production. Iodine (as the iodide ion) essentially bonds with oxygen to form non-toxic iodate, relieving the need to shield zooxanthellae and enabling the host organism to open fully.
The predominant form of iodine in seawater is iodide. The natural seawater concentration of all iodine species combined is approximately 0.06 ppm, classifying it as a minor element. Even in this small concentration, iodine is required for survival of fishes, crustaceans, macroalgae and kelp, and hermatypic invertebrates alike.
Iodine binds rapidly with latent organic material and is passively removed by aggressive protein skimming and the use of organic-adsorption products such as activated carbon and specialty resins. The combined biological and chemical depletion of iodine necessitate that its concentration be monitored and the aquarium supplemented as needed.
The rate at which iodine is extracted from the water is determined by the stocking density of reef-building livestock, type of lighting, and other biological, physical, and chemical conditions. Once the rate of iodine uptake in the aquarium has been determined, the proper dosing rate of this product can be easily calculated.
Instructions and Guidelines
Determine the iodine concentration in the aquarium using an accurate test kit before supplementing. Each ml of Brightwell Aquatics Lugol’s will increase the concentration of iodine (“[I]”) in 1 US-gallon (3.785 L) of water by 18 ppm, or approximately 0.9 ppm per drop. Add this product at the maximum dosage of 1 drop (1/20th ml) per 35 US-gallons daily to maintain a concentration of 0.05 ppm. Always try to maintain the [I] within a range of +/-0.02 ppm. Determine the required daily dosing rate (recommended to weekly dosing) by measuring the aquarium`s [I] at the same time each day over a one- to two-week period. Estimate the volume of water in the entire aquarium system; divide the daily decrease in [I] by 0.9; multiply this number by the volume of water in the system to get the daily dosage required (drops) to maintain a stable [I].
To create a dip for corals and their allies, add 1.50 ml (30 drops) of Lugol’s per gallon of purified water in a plastic or glass container, then immerse coral completely for 10 - 12 minutes.
Caution: Keep out of reach of children. Not for human consumption. Contact poison control center if ingested.
• Iodine (min) 2,000 mg/oz. (67,641 ppm)
• Purified water, Potassium Iodide, Iodine
Tunze Co2 Pressure Reducer 7077/3
Precision device with fine adjustment for standard CO2 cylinders, thread in keeping with German standard DIN 477 (US version with CGA 320 thread). To be mounted without tools; precise adjustment; two pressure gauges; pressure-relief valve. Made in Germany.
Dennerle CO2 Night Cut-off Valve Comfort
For magnificent plant growth, DENNERLE recommends a CO2 content in the aquarium of approx. 20 mg/l.
As certain correlations apply between CO2 content, carbonate hardness (CH) and pH value, the CO2 content in the water can be calculated according to a simple procedure:
Measure the carbonate hardness of your aquarium water.
Read the pH value which corresponds to the desired CO2 content from the table. You should set this pH value +/- 0.1 by adjusting the number of bubbles accordingly. Example: Carbonate hardness 4 °d, recommended pH 6.8 +/- 0.1.
The procedure is even simpler with the DENNERLE CO2 long-term test Correct + pH.
$18.00Dymax Base Soil series decreases the hardness of the water and lower the pH level to the degree at which most aquatic plants can consume nutrients and comfortably grow. The soil granules maintain the shape and density underwater security good circulation of water oxygen through the substrate. With Dymax Base Soil, growing difficult plants become easier and it is ideal for fishes demanding soft water.
XStream-E Wave Pump
24V WAVE PUMP INCLUDING MINI CONTROLLER
CIRCULATION AND STREAM PUMP WITH ELECTRONIC CONTROL
XSTREAM-E incorporates the new DC technology and is ideal to be used in advanced marine tanks to create the most natural waves. An adjustable flow rate and 4 pre-set timing programs embody all what is needed for any easy and professional aquarium care.
DETAILS: The controller features 5 LED lights indicating both speed and 4 pre-set timing programs: